Code of the District of Columbia

§ 1–301.45. Construction of terms set forth in acts and resolutions.

For the purposes of any act or resolution of the Council of the District of Columbia, unless specifically provided otherwise:

(1) Words importing the singular include and apply to several persons, parties, or things.

(2) Words importing the plural include the singular.

(3) With regard to resolutions, words importing 1 gender include and apply to the other gender as well.

(4) Words used in the present tense include the future as well as the present.

(5) The words “person” and “whoever” include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals.

(6) “Officer” includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office.

(7) “Signature” or “subscription” includes a mark when the person making it intended that mark as such.

(8) “Oath” includes affirmation, and “sworn” includes affirmed.

(9) “Writing” includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise.

(10) The words “include” and “including” mean “includes, but not limited to” and “including, but not limited to”.

(11) Words such as “stepparent,” “stepmother,” “stepfather,” “stepchild,” “stepsister,” and “stepbrother” are used to indicate a category of a family step-relationship created when an individual who is a parent of a child:

(A) Marries an individual who is not a parent of that child; or

(B) Becomes a domestic partner of an individual who is not a parent of that child by registering the domestic partnership pursuant to § 32-702.


(Sept. 23, 1975, D.C. Law 1-17, § 2, 22 DCR 1990; June 4, 1982, D.C. Law 4-111, § 2(b), 29 DCR 1684; Apr. 7, 2006, D.C. Law 16-91, § 105, 52 DCR 10637; Sept. 12, 2008, D.C. Law 17-231, § 2, 55 DCR 6758.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 1-230.

1973 Ed., § 1-146a.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 9-1115.03.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 16-91 added par. (10).

D.C. Law 17-231 added par. (11).

Cross References

General rules of construction, see § 45-601 et seq.

Woodrow Wilson Bridge and Tunnel Compact, see § 9-1115.03.