Code of the District of Columbia

§ 28:2-402. Rights of seller’s creditors against sold goods.

(1) Except as provided in subsections (2) and (3), rights of unsecured creditors of the seller with respect to goods which have been identified to a contract for sale are subject to the buyer’s rights to recover the goods under this article (sections 28:2-502 and 28:2-716).

(2) A creditor of the seller may treat a sale or an identification of goods to a contract for sale as void if as against him a retention of possession by the seller is fraudulent under any rule of law of the state where the goods are situated, except that retention of possession in good faith and current course of trade by a merchant-seller for a commercially reasonable time after a sale or identification is not fraudulent.

(3) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to impair the rights of creditors of the seller

(a) under the provisions of the article on secured transactions (Article 9); or

(b) where identification to the contract or delivery is made not in current course of trade but in satisfaction of or as security for a pre-existing claim for money, security or the like and is made under circumstances which under any rule of law of the state where the goods are situated would apart from this article constitute the transaction a fraudulent transfer or voidable preference.

(Dec. 30, 1963, 77 Stat. 654, Pub. L. 88-243, § 1.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 28:2-402.

1973 Ed., § 28:2-402.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 28:1-301 and § 28:7-504.

Uniform Commercial Code Comment

Prior Uniform Statutory Provision: Subsection (2)—Section 26, Uniform Sales Act; Subsections (1) and (3)—none.

Changes: Rephrased.

Purposes of Changes and New Matter: To avoid confusion on ordinary issues between current sellers and buyers and issues in the field of preference and hindrance by making it clear that:

1. Local law on questions of hindrance of creditors by the seller’s retention of possession of the goods are outside the scope of this Article, but retention of possession in the current course of trade is legitimate. Transactions which fall within the law’s policy against improper preferences are reserved from the protection of this Article.

2. The retention of possession of the goods by a merchant seller for a commercially reasonable time after a sale or identification in current course is exempted from attack as fraudulent. Similarly, the provisions of subsection (3) have no application to identification or delivery made in the current course of trade, as measured against general commercial understanding of what a “current” transaction is.

Definitional Cross References: “Contract for sale”. Section 2-106.

“Creditor”. Section 1-201.

“Good faith”. Section 2-103.

“Goods”. Section 2-105.

“Merchant”. Section 2-104.

“Money”. Section 1-201.

“Reasonable time”. Section 1-204.

“Rights”. Section 1-201.

“Sale”. Section 2-106.

“Seller”. Section 2-103.