(a) A security interest in favor of a securities intermediary attaches to a person’s security entitlement if:
(1) The person buys a financial asset through the securities intermediary in a transaction in which the person is obligated to pay the purchase price to the securities intermediary at the time of the purchase; and
(2) The securities intermediary credits the financial asset to the buyer’s securities account before the buyer pays the securities intermediary.
(b) The security interest described in subsection (a) secures the person’s obligation to pay for the financial asset.
(c) A security interest in favor of a person that delivers a certificated security or other financial asset represented by a writing attaches to the security or other financial asset if:
(1) The security or other financial asset:
(A) In the ordinary course of business is transferred by delivery with any necessary indorsement or assignment; and
(B) Is delivered under an agreement between persons in the business of dealing with such securities or financial assets; and
(2) The agreement calls for delivery against payment.
(d) The security interest described in subsection (c) secures the obligation to make payment for the delivery.
Uniform Commercial Code Comment
1. Source. Former 9-116.
2. Codification of “Broker’s Lien.” Depending upon a securities intermediary’s arrangements with its entitlement holders, the securities intermediary may treat the entitlement holder as entitled to financial assets before the entitlement holder has actually made payment for them. For example, many brokers permit retail customers to pay for financial assets by check. The broker may not receive final payment of the check until several days after the broker has credited the customer’s securities account for the financial assets. Thus, the customer will have acquired a security entitlement prior to payment. Subsection (a) provides that, in such circumstances, the securities intermediary has a security interest in the entitlement holder’s security entitlement. Under subsection (b) the security interest secures the customer’s obligation to pay for the financial asset in question. Subsections (a) and (b) codify and adapt to the indirect holding system the so-called “broker’s lien,” which has long been recognized. See Restatement, Security s 12.
3. Financial Assets Delivered Against Payment. Subsection (c) creates a security interest in favor of persons who deliver certificated securities or other financial assets in physical form, such as money market instruments, if the agreed payment is not received. In some arrangements for settlement of transactions in physical financial assets, the seller’s securities custodian will deliver physical certificates to the buyer’s securities custodian and receive a time-stamped delivery receipt. The buyer’s securities custodian will examine the certificate to ensure that it is in good order, and that the delivery matches a trade in which the buyer has instructed the seller to deliver to that custodian. If all is in order, the receiving custodian will settle with the delivering custodian through whatever funds settlement system has been agreed upon or is used by custom and usage in that market. The understanding of the trade, however, is that the delivery is conditioned upon payment, so that if payment is not made for any reason, the security will be returned to the deliverer. Subsection (c) clarifies the rights of persons making deliveries in such circumstances. It provides the person making delivery with a security interest in the securities or other financial assets; under subsection (d), the security interest secures the seller’s right to receive payment for the delivery. Section 8-301 specifies when delivery of a certificated security occurs; that section should be applied as well to other financial assets as well for purposes of this section.
4. Automatic Attachment and Perfection. Subsections (a) and (c) refer to attachment of a security interest. Attachment under this section has the same incidents (enforceability, right to proceeds, etc.) as attachment under Section 9-203. This section overrides the general attachment rules in Section 9-203. See Section 9-203(c). A securities intermediary’s security interest under subsection (a) is perfected by control without further action. See Section 8-106 (control); 9-314 (perfection). Security interests arising under subsection (c) are automatically perfected. See Section 9-309(9).