Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter III. Offender Supervision and Parole.


§ 24–131. Parole.

(a) Paroling jurisdiction. —

(1) Jurisdiction of Parole Commission to grant or deny parole and to impose conditions. — Not later than one year after August 5, 1997, the United States Parole Commission shall assume the jurisdiction and authority of the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia to grant and deny parole, and to impose conditions upon an order of parole, in the case of any imprisoned felon who is eligible for parole or reparole under the District of Columbia Code. The Parole Commission shall have exclusive authority to amend or supplement any regulation interpreting or implementing the parole laws of the District of Columbia with respect to felons, provided that the Commission adheres to the rulemaking procedures set forth in § 4218 [repealed] of title 18, United States Code.

(2) Jurisdiction of Parole Commission to revoke parole or modify conditions. — On the date in which the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia is established under § 24-133, the United States Parole Commission shall assume any remaining powers, duties, and jurisdiction of the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia, including jurisdiction to revoke parole and to modify the conditions of parole, with respect to felons.

(3) Jurisdiction of Superior Court. — On the date on which the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia is established under § 24-133, the Superior Court of the District of Columbia shall assume the jurisdiction and authority of the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia to grant, deny, and revoke parole, and to impose and modify conditions of parole, with respect to misdemeanants.

(b) Abolition of the Board of Parole. — On the date on which the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia is established under § 24-133, the Board of Parole established in the District of Columbia Board of Parole Amendment Act of 1987 shall be abolished.

(c) Rulemaking and legislative responsibility for parole matter. — The Parole Commission shall exercise the authority vested in it by this section pursuant to the parole laws and regulations of the District of Columbia, except that the Council of the District of Columbia and the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia may not revise any such laws or regulations (as in effect on August 5, 1997) without the concurrence of the Attorney General.


(Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 745, Pub. L. 105-33, § 11231; Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2426, Pub. L. 105-274, § 7(c)(2)(A).)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 24-1231.

References in Text

The “District of Columbia Board of Parole Amendment Act of 1987,” referred to in (b), is D.C. Law 7-103, 34 DCR 8279, effective April 8, 1988.


§ 24–132. Pretrial services, parole, adult probation and offender supervision trustee.

(a) Appointment and removal. —

(1) Appointment. — The Attorney General, in consultation with the Chairman of the District of Columbia Financial Responsibility and Management Assistance Authority (hereafter in this section referred to as the “D.C. Control Board”) and the Mayor of the District of Columbia, shall appoint a Pretrial Services, Parole, Adult Probation and Offender Supervision Trustee, who shall be an independent officer of the government of the District of Columbia, to effectuate the reorganization and transition of functions and funding relating to pretrial services, defense services, parole, adult probation and offender supervision.

(2) Removal. — The Trustee may be removed by the Mayor with the concurrence of the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall have the authority to remove the Trustee for misfeasance or malfeasance in office. At the request of the Trustee, the District of Columbia Financial Responsibility and Management Assistance Authority may exercise any of its powers and authorities on behalf of the Trustee.

(b) Authority. — Beginning on the date of appointment, and continuing until the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia is established under § 24-133, the Trustee shall:

(1) Have the authority to exercise all powers and functions authorized for the Director of the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia;

(2) Have the authority to direct the actions of all agencies of the District of Columbia whose functions will be assumed by or within the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia, and of the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia, including the authority to discharge or replace any officers or employees of these agencies;

(3) Exercise financial oversight over all agencies of the District of Columbia whose functions will be assumed by or within the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia, and over the Board of Parole of the District of Columbia, and allocate funds to these agencies as appropriated by Congress and allocated by the President;

(4) Receive and transmit to the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency all funds appropriated for such agency; and

(5) Receive and transmit to the District of Columbia Public Defender Service all funds appropriated for such agency.

(c) Compensation. — The Trustee shall be compensated at a rate not to exceed the basic pay payable for Level IV of the Executive Schedule. The Trustee may appoint and fix the pay of additional staff without regard to the provisions of the District of Columbia Official Code governing appointments and salaries, without regard to the provisions of Title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of Chapter 51 and subchapter III of Chapter 53 of Title 5, United States Code, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates. Upon request of the Trustee, the head of any Federal department or agency may, on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, provide services and/or detail any personnel of that department or agency to the Trusteeship to assist in carrying out its duties.

(d) Procurement and judicial review. — The provisions of the District of Columbia Official Code governing procurement shall not apply to the Trustee. The Trustee may enter into such contracts as the Trustee considers appropriate to carry out the Trustee’s duties. The Trustee may seek judicial enforcement of the Trustee’s authority to carry out the Trustee’s duties.

(e) Preservation of retirement and certain other rights of federal employee who becomes the Trustee or federal employees who become employed by the Trustee. —

(1) In general. — A Federal employee who, within 3 days after separating from the Federal Government, is appointed Trustee or becomes employed by the Trustee:

(A) Shall be treated as an employee of the Federal Government for purposes of chapters 83, 84, 87, and 89 of Title 5 of the United States Code; and

(B) If, after serving with the Trustee, such employee becomes reemployed by the Federal Government, shall be entitled to credit for the full period of such individual’s service with the Trustee, for purposes of determining the applicable leave accrual rate.

(2) Regulations. — The Office of Personnel Management shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

(f) Treatment as Federal Employees. —

(1) In general. — The Trustee and employees of the Trustee who are not covered under subsection (e) of this section shall be treated as employees of the Federal Government solely for purposes of the following provisions of title 5, United States Code:

(A) Chapter 83 (relating to retirement).

(B) Chapter 84 (relating to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System).

(C) Chapter 87 (relating to life insurance).

(D) Chapter 89 (relating to health insurance).

(2) Effective dates of coverage. — The effective dates of coverage of the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection are as follows:

(A) In the case of the Trustee and employees of the Office of the Trustee and the Office of Adult Probation, August 5, 1997, or the date of appointment, whichever is later.

(B) In the case of employees of the Office of Parole, October 11, 1998, or the date of appointment, whichever is later.

(C) In the case of employees of the Pretrial Services Agency, January 3, 1999, or the date of appointment, whichever is later.

(3) Rate of contributions. — The Trustee shall make contributions under the provisions referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection at the same rates applicable to agencies of the Federal Government.

(4) Regulations. — The Office of Personnel Management shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection.

(g) Funding. — Funds available for operations of the Trustee shall be made available to the extent provided in appropriations acts to the Trustee, through the State Justice Institute. Funding requests shall be proposed by the Trustee to the President and Congress for each Fiscal Year.

(h) Liability and litigation authority. —

(1) Liability. — The District of Columbia shall defend any civil action or proceeding brought in any court or other official Federal, state, or municipal forum against the Trustee, or against the District of Columbia or its officers, employees, or agents, and shall assume any liability resulting from such an action or proceeding, if the action or proceeding arises from the:

(A) Supervision of offenders on probation, parole, or supervised release;

(B) Provision of pretrial services by the District of Columbia; or

(C) Activities of the District of Columbia Board of Parole.

(2) Litigation. —

(A) D.C. Attorney General. — Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the Corporation Counsel of the District of Columbia shall provide litigation services to the Trustee, except that the Trustee may instead elect, either generally or in relation to particular cases or classes of cases, to hire necessary staff and personnel or enter into contracts for the provision of litigation services at the Trustee’s expense.

(B) U.S. Attorney General. —

(i) In general. — Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, with respect to any litigation involving the Trustee, the Attorney General may:

(I) Direct the litigation of the Trustee, and of the District of Columbia on behalf of the Trustee; and

(II) Provide on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis litigation services for the Trustee at the Trustee’s request or on the Attorney General’s own initiative.

(ii) Approval of settlement. — With respect to any litigation involving the Trustee, the Trustee may not agree to any settlement involving any form of equitable relief without the approval of the Attorney General. The Trustee shall provide to the Attorney General such notice and reports concerning litigation as the Attorney General may direct.

(iii) Discretion. — Any decision to exercise any authority of the Attorney General under this paragraph shall be in the sole discretion of the Attorney General and shall not be reviewable in any court.

(3) Limitations. — Nothing in this section shall be construed:

(A) As a waiver of sovereign immunity, or as limiting any other defense or immunity that would otherwise be available to the United States, the District of Columbia, their agencies, officers, employees, or agents; or

(B) To obligate the District of Columbia to represent or indemnify the Corrections Trustee or any officer, employee, or agent where the Trustee (or any person employed by or acting under the authority of the Trustee) acts beyond the scope of his authority.

(i) Certification. — The Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia shall assume its duties pursuant to § 24-133 when, within the period beginning one year after August 5, 1997 and ending three years after August 5, 1997, the Trustee certifies to the Attorney General and the Attorney General concurs that the Agency can carry out the functions described in § 24-133 and the United States Parole Commission can carry out the functions described in § 24-133.

(j) Exercise of authority on behalf of Public Defender Service. — At the request of the Director of the District of Columbia Public Defender Service, the Trustee may exercise any of the powers and authorities of the Trustee on behalf of such Service in the same manner and to the same extent as the Trustee may exercise such powers and authorities in relation to any agency described in subsection (b) of this section.


(Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 746, Pub. L. 105-33, § 11232; Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2425, Pub. L. 105-274, § 7(a)(1), (a)(4), (b), (c)(2)(B); Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2440, Pub. L. 106-522, § 145(a).)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 24-1232.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 22-4001, § 24-134, § 24-141, and § 24-142.

Effect of Amendments

Section 145(a) of Public Law 106-522 redesignated subsecs. (f) through (i) as subsecs. (g) through (j), respectively, and added subsec. (f), relating to the treatment of certain persons as federal employees.

Section 145(b) of Public Law 106-522 provided: “The amendment made by subsection (a) shall take effect as if included in the enactment of title XI of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.

Editor's Notes

Section 166(b) of Public Law 106-113 provided:

AUTHORITY DURING TRANSITION TO FULL OPERATION OF AGENCY.—

“(1) AUTHORITY OF PRETRIAL SERVICES, PAROLE, ADULT PROBATION AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION TRUSTEE.— Notwithstanding section 11232(b)(1) of the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 ( D.C. Code, sec. 24-1232(b)(1)), the Pretrial Services, Parole, Adult Probation and Offender Supervision Trustee appointed under section 11232(a) of such Act (hereafter referred to as the ‘Trustee’) shall, in accordance with section 11232 of such Act, exercise the powers and functions of the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia (hereafter referred to as the ‘Agency’) relating to sex offender registration (as granted to the Agency under any District of Columbia law) only upon the Trustee’s certification that the Trustee is able to assume such powers and functions.

“(2) AUTHORITY OF METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT.— During the period that begins on the date of the enactment of the Sex Offender Registration Emergency Act of 1999 and ends on the date the Trustee makes the certification described in paragraph (1), the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia shall have the authority to carry out any powers and functions relating to sex offender registration that are granted to the Agency or to the Trustee under any District of Columbia law.”


§ 24–133. Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency.

(a) Establishment. — There is established within the executive branch of the Federal Government the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Agency”) which shall assumes [assume] its duties not less than one year or more than three years after August 5, 1997.

(b) Director. —

(1) Appointment and compensation. — The Agency shall be headed by a Director appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a term of six years. The Director shall be compensated at the rate prescribed for Level IV of the Executive Schedule, and may be removed from office prior to the expiration of term only for neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or other good cause shown.

(2) Powers and duties of Director. — The Director shall:

(A) Submit annual appropriation requests for the Agency to the Office of Management and Budget;

(B) Determine, in consultation with the Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, the Chief Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, and the Chairman of the United States Parole Commission, uniform supervision and reporting practices for the Agency;

(C) Hire and supervise supervision officers and support staff for the Agency;

(D) Direct the use of funds made available to the Agency;

(E) Enter into such contracts, leases, and cooperative agreements as may be necessary for the performance of the Agency’s functions, including contracts for substance abuse and other treatment and rehabilitative programs;

(F) Develop and operate intermediate sanctions and incentives programs for sentenced offenders;

(G) Arrange for the supervision of District of Columbia offenders on parole, probation, and supervised release who seek to reside in jurisdictions outside the District of Columbia;

(H) Carry out all functions which have heretofore been carried out by the Social Services Division of the Superior Court relating to supervision of adults subject to protection orders or provision of services for or related to such persons;

(I) Arrange for the supervision of offenders on parole, probation, and supervised release from jurisdictions outside the District of Columbia who seek to reside in the District of Columbia; and

(J) Have the authority to enter into agreements, including the Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision, with any State or group of States in accordance with the Agency’s responsibilities under subparagraphs (G) and (I) of this paragraph.

(3) Acceptance of gifts. —

(A) Authority to accept gifts. — The Director may accept, solicit, and use on behalf of the Agency any monetary or nonmonetary gift, donation, bequest, or use of facilities, property, or services for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Agency.

(B) Records. — The Director shall keep accurate and detailed records of the acceptance and use of any gifts under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, and shall make such records available for audit and public inspection.

(4) Reimbursement from District government. — The Director may accept and use reimbursement from the District government for space and services provided, on a cost reimbursable basis.

(c) Functions. —

(1) In general. — The Agency shall provide supervision, through qualified supervision officers, for offenders on probation, parole, and supervised release pursuant to the District of Columbia Official Code. The Agency shall carry out its responsibilities on behalf of the court or agency having jurisdiction over the offender being supervised.

(2) Supervision of released offenders. — The Agency shall supervise any offender who is released from imprisonment for any term of supervised release imposed by the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. Such offender shall be subject to the authority of the United States Parole Commission until completion of the term of supervised release. The United States Parole Commission shall have and exercise the same authority as is vested in the United States district courts by paragraphs (d) through (i) of § 3583 of title 18, United States Code, except that:

(A) The procedures followed by the Commission in exercising such authority shall be those set forth in chapter 311 [repealed] of title 18, United States Code; and

(B) An extension of a term of supervised release under subsection (e)(2) of § 3583 may only be ordered by the Superior Court upon motion from the Commission.

(3) Supervision of probationers. — Subject to appropriations and program availability, the Agency shall supervise all offenders placed on probation by the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. The Agency shall carry out the conditions of release imposed by the Superior Court (including conditions that probationers undergo training, education, therapy, counseling, drug testing, or drug treatment), and shall make such reports to the Superior Court with respect to an individual on probation as the Superior Court may require.

(4) Supervision of District of Columbia parolees. — The Agency shall supervise all individuals on parole pursuant to the District of Columbia Official Code. The Agency shall carry out the conditions of release imposed by the United States Parole Commission or, with respect to a misdemeanant, by the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, and shall make such reports to the Commission or Court with respect to an individual on parole supervision as the Commission or Court may require.

(5) Sex offender registration. — The Agency shall carry out sex offender registration functions in the District of Columbia, and shall have the authority to exercise all powers and functions relating to sex offender registration that are granted to the Agency under any District of Columbia law.

(d) Authority of officers. — The supervision officers of the Agency shall have and exercise the same powers and authority as are granted by law to United States Probation and Pretrial Officers.

(e) Pretrial Services Agency. —

(1) Independent entity. — The District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency established by subchapter I of Chapter 13 of Title 23, District of Columbia Official Code, shall function as an independent entity within the Agency.

(2) Submission on behalf of Pretrial Services. — The Director of the Agency shall submit, on behalf of the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency and with the approval of the Director of the Pretrial Services Agency, an annual appropriation request to the Office of Management and Budget. Such request shall be separate from the request submitted for the Agency.

(3) Liability of District of Columbia. — The District of Columbia shall defend any civil action or proceeding brought in any court or other official Federal, state, or municipal forum against the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency or the District of Columbia or its officers, employees, or agents, and shall assume any liability resulting from such an action or proceeding, if the action or proceeding arises from the activities of the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency prior to the date on which the Offender Supervision, Defender and Courts Services Agency assumes its duties.

(4) Litigation. —

(A) Attorney General for the District of Columbia. — Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the Attorney General for the District of Columbia shall provide litigation services to the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency, except that the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency may instead elect, either generally or in relation to particular cases or classes of cases, to hire necessary staff and personnel or enter into contracts for the provision of litigation services at such agency’s expense.

(B) Attorney General. —

(i) In general. — Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, with respect to any litigation involving the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency, the Attorney General may:

(I) Direct the litigation of the agency, and of the District of Columbia on behalf of the agency; and

(II) Provide on a reimbursable or non-reimbursable basis litigation services for the agency at the agency’s request or on the Attorney General’s own initiative.

(ii) Approval of settlement. — With respect to any litigation involving the District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency, the agency may not agree to any settlement involving any form of equitable relief without the approval of the Attorney General. The agency shall provide to the Attorney General such notice and reports concerning litigation as the Attorney General may direct.

(iii) Discretion. — Any decision to exercise any authority of the Attorney General under this paragraph shall be in the sole discretion of the Attorney General and shall not be reviewable in any court.

(f) Repealed.

(g) Authority to use services of volunteers. —

(1) In general. — The Agency (including any independent entity within the Agency) may accept the services of volunteers and provide for their incidental expenses to carry out any activity of the Agency except policy-making.

(2) Applicability of worker’s compensation rules to volunteers. — Any volunteer whose services are accepted pursuant to this subsection shall be considered an employee of the United States Government in providing the services for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, United States Code (relating to compensation for work injuries) and chapter 11 of title 18, United States Code, relating to corruption and conflicts of interest.


(Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 748, Pub. L. 105-33, § 11233; Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2425, Pub. L. 105-274, § 7(a)(2), (c)(1), (e)(2)(C); Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-147, Pub. L. 105-277, § 158(a); Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1530, Pub. L. 106-113, § 166(a); Nov. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 2353, Pub. L. 107-302, § 2; Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2026, 2039, Pub. L. 109-356, §§ 115, 301(a); Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2042, Pub. L. 110-161, § 825(b); Jan. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 13, Pub. L. 114-118, § 3.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 24-1233.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 1-527.01, § 11-1722, § 22-4001, § 24-131, and § 24-132.

Effect of Amendments

Section 166(a) of Public Law 106-113 added par. (c)(5) relating to sex offender registration.

Public Law 107-302 rewrote subpar. (G) of subsec. (b)(2); made nonsubstantive changes in subpar. (H) of subsec. (b)(2); and added subpars. (I) and (J) to subsec. (b)(2). Prior to amendment, subpar. (G) of subsec. (b)(2) had read as follows: “G) Arrange for the supervision of District of Columbia paroled offenders in jurisdictions outside the District of Columbia; and”.

Pub. L. 109-356 added subsecs. (b)(3), (b)(4), and (g).

Pub. L. 110-161 repealed subsec. (f) which had read as follows: “(f) Receipt and transmittal of appropriations for Public Defender Service.—The Director of the Agency shall receive and transmit to the District of Columbia Public Defender Service all funds appropriated for such agency.”

The 2016 amendment by Pub. L. 114-118 added “and incentives” in (b)(2)(F); rewrote (b)(3)(A); and deleted “During fiscal years 2006 through 2008” from the beginning of (b)(4).

Effective Dates

Section 825(c) of Pub. L. 110-161 provided that amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to fiscal year 2008 and each succeeding fiscal year.

Editor's Notes

Retirement election for certain former employees of the District of Columbia: Section 3 of Pub. L. 105-274, 112 Stat. 2423, provided:

(a) In general—Notwithstanding any provision of the District of Columbia Code, or of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, a former employee of the District of Columbia who is hired by the Department of Justice, or by the agency established by section 11233(a) of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Agency”), on or after August 5, 1997, may elect, within 60 days after the issuance of regulations pursuant to subsection (c), or within 60 days of being hired, if later, to be covered by the retirement system of the District of Columbia under which the person was most recently covered. No election under this subsection may be made by a person who is hired more than one year after the date on which the Lorton Correctional Complex is closed, or more than one year after the date on which the Agency assumes its duties, whichever is later.

(b) Period of election—The election authorized by subsection (a) shall remain in force until the employee is no longer employed by the agency in which her or she was employed at the time the election was made.

(c) Regulations—The election authorized by subsection (a) shall be in accordance with regulations issued by the Office of Personnel Management after consulting with the Department of Justice, the Agency, and the government of the District of Columbia. The government of the District of Columbia shall administer the retirement coverage for any employee making such an election.

Leave for certain former employees of the District of Columbia: Section 4 of Pub. L. 105-274, 112 Stat. 2423, provide: (a) In general—Notwithstanding any provision of law, a former employee of the District of Columbia who is hired by the Department of Justice, or by the agency established by section 11233(a) of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Agency”), on or after August 5, 1997, shall — (1) in determining the rate of accrual of annual leave under section 6303 of title 5, United States Code, be entitled to credit for service as an employee of the District of Columbia; (2) to the extent that the employee has not used or otherwise been compensated for annual leave accrued as an employee of the District of Columbia, have all such accrued annual leave transferred, in accordance with the procedures established under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, to the credit of the employee in the new employing agency; and. (3) to the extent the employee has not used or otherwise been compensated for sick leave accrued as an employee of the District of Columbia, have all such accrued sick leave transferred, in accordance with the procedures established under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, to the credit of the employee in the new employing agency. (b) Termination—Subsection (a) is not applicable to any former employee of the District of Columbia who is hired by the Department of Justice or the Agency more than one year after the date on which the Lorton Correctional Complex is closed, or more than one year after the date on which the Agency assumes its duties, whichever is later.


§ 24–134. Authorization of appropriations.

There are authorized to be appropriated in each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary for the following:

(1) District of Columbia Pretrial Services Agency.

(2) Supervision of offenders on probation, parole, or supervised release for offenses under the District of Columbia Official Code.

(3) Operation of the parole system for offenders convicted of offenses under the District of Columbia Official Code.

(4) Operation of the Trusteeship described in § 24-132.


(Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 751, Pub. L. 105-33, § 11234; Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2425, Pub. L. 105-274, §§ 6(b)(2), 7(a)(3).)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 24-1234.