§ 47–1812.08. Withholding of tax.
(a) Income of foreign corporations or unincorporated business. — Whenever the Council of the District of Columbia shall deem it necessary in order to satisfy the District’s claim for a tax payable by any foreign corporation or unincorporated business, it may, by rules and regulations, require any person subject to the jurisdiction of the District to withhold and pay to the Mayor an amount not in excess of 5% of all income payable by such person to such foreign corporation or unincorporated business. After such foreign corporation or unincorporated business shall have filed all returns required under this subchapter, and the same shall have been audited, the Mayor shall refund any overpayment to the taxpayer.
(b) Wages; method of determination. —
(1) Every employer making payment of wages on or after October 1, 1956, to any employee as defined in this chapter, shall deduct and withhold a tax upon such wages, such tax to be determined by one of the following methods, to be elected by the employer, subject to the approval of the Mayor, with respect to any employee:
(A) In accordance with a percentage method of withholding similar in principle to that under § 3402 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (§ 3402 of Title 26, United States Code), to be included in regulations;
(B) In accordance with tables similar in principle to those contained in § 3402 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to be included in regulations;
(C) Repealed; or
(D) By such other method as may be prescribed in regulations.
(1A) Notwithstanding which method of determination for withholding set forth in paragraph (1) of this subsection is used, no allowance for the standard deduction shall be permitted.
(2)(A) If wages are paid with respect to a period which is not a payroll period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days, including Sundays and holidays, equal to the number of days in the period with respect to which such wages are paid.
(B) In any case in which wages are paid by an employer without regard to any payroll period or other period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days equal to the number of days (including Sundays and holidays) which have elapsed since the date of the last payment of such wages by such employer during the calendar year, or the date of commencement of employment with such employer during such year, or January 1st of such year, whichever is the later.
(C) In determining the amount to be deducted and withheld under this section, the wages may, at the election of the employer, be computed to the nearest dollar.
(D) The Council of the District of Columbia may, by regulations, authorize employers:
(i) To estimate the wages which will be paid to any employee in any quarter of the calendar year;
(ii) To determine the amount to be deducted and withheld upon each payment of wages to such employee during such quarter as if the appropriate average of the wages so estimated constituted the actual wages paid; and
(iii) To deduct and withhold upon any payment of wages to such employee during such quarter such amount as may be necessary to adjust the amount actually deducted and withheld upon the wages of such employee during such quarter to the amount that would be required to be deducted and withheld during such quarter if the payroll period of the employee were quarterly.
(E) The Council of the District of Columbia is authorized to provide by regulation, under such conditions and to such extent as it deems proper, for withholding in addition to that otherwise required under this section in cases in which the employer and the employee agree to such additional withholding. Such additional withholding shall for all purposes be considered the tax required to be deducted and withheld under this section.
(c) Overlapping pay periods; multiple employers. —
(1) If payment of wages is made to an employee by an employer:
(A) With respect to a payroll period or other period, any part of which is included in a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer;
(B) Without regard to any payroll period or other period, but on or prior to the expiration of a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer;
(C) With respect to a period beginning in 1 and ending in another calendar year; or
(D) Through an agent, fiduciary, or other person who also has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays the wages payable by another employer to such employee.
(2) The manner of withholding and the amount to be deducted and withheld under this section shall be determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Council of the District of Columbia under which the withholding exemption allowed to the employee in any calendar year shall approximate the withholding exemption allowable with respect to an annual payroll period.
(d) Included and excluded wages. — If the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during one-half or more of any payroll period of not more than 31 consecutive days constitutes wages, all the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages; but if the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during more than one-half of any such payroll period does not constitute wages, then none of the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages.
(e) Exemptions. —
(1) An employee receiving wages shall on any day be entitled to the withholding exemptions allowed under this chapter, unless the Mayor determines that an alternative withholding method is warranted under paragraphs (9) or (11) of this subsection.
(2) Every employee shall, on or before October 1, 1956, or before the date of commencement of employment, whichever is later, furnish his employer with a signed withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which he claims, which in no event shall exceed the number to which he is entitled.
(3) Withholding exemption certificates shall take effect as of the beginning of the first payroll period ending, or the first payment of wages made without regard to a payroll period, on or after the date on which such certificate is so furnished; provided, that certificates furnished before October 1, 1956, shall be considered as furnished on that date.
(4) A withholding exemption certificate which takes effect under this section shall continue in effect with respect to the employer until another such certificate takes effect under this section. If a withholding exemption certificate is furnished to take the place of an existing certificate, the employer, at his option, may continue the old certificate in force with respect to all wages paid on or before the first status determination date, January 1st or July 1st of each year, which occurs at least 30 days after the date on which such new certificate is furnished.
(5) If, on any day during the calendar year, the withholding exemptions to which the employee may reasonably be expected to be entitled at the beginning of his next taxable year is different from the exemptions to which the employee is entitled on such day, the employee shall in such cases and at such times as the Mayor may prescribe, furnish the employer with a withholding exemption certificate relating to the exemptions which he claims with respect to such next taxable year, which shall in no event exceed the exemptions to which he may reasonably be expected to be so entitled. Exemption certificates issued pursuant to this subsection shall not take effect with respect to any payment of wages made in the calendar year in which the certificate is furnished.
(6) If, on any day during the calendar year, the withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is less than the withholding exemptions claimed by the employee on the withholding exemption certificate then in effect with respect to him, the employee shall, within 10 days thereafter, furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the exemptions to which he is entitled on such day. If, on any day during the calendar year, the withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is greater than the withholding exemptions claimed, the employee may furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the exemptions to which he is entitled on such day.
(7) Withholding exemption certificates shall be in such form and contain such information as the Council of the District of Columbia may by regulations prescribe.
(8) For periods beginning after December 31, 2011, an employee shall be entitled to additional withholding exemptions under this subsection with respect to payment of wages equal to a number determined by dividing by $1,370 his or her estimated itemized deductions.
(9) An employer shall base withholding for the employee on zero withholding exemptions if the Mayor notifies an employer that:
(A) An employee has an unpaid tax liability;
(B) An employee failed to file a required District of Columbia income tax return; or
(C) An employee is subject to a tax refund interception request.
(10) If the conditions of paragraphs (9)(A), (B), and (C) of this subsection no longer apply, the employer may apply to the Mayor to authorize an increase in the number of withholding exemptions. Upon approval, the Mayor may authorize an increase in the number of withholding exemptions to the level at which they would not have resulted in an underpayment of taxpayer’s most recent income tax return.
(11)(A) An exemption certificate shall be invalid if it:
(i) Does not contain the information required; or
(ii) Contains false or fraudulent information.
(B) An exemption certificate shall be valid if it states:
(i) A number of exemptions if it is less than the number of exemptions to which the individual is entitled under this chapter; or
(ii) A number of additional exemptions less than or equal to the fraction rounded down to the nearest whole number:
(I) The numerator of which equals the excess of the total of estimated itemized deductions, alimony payments, allowable child care expenses, qualified retirement contributions, business losses, and employer business expenses over the standard deduction allowance; and
(II) The denominator of which equals the amount allowed for each exemption under this chapter for the applicable tax year.
(f) Failure to withhold or pay amounts withheld. —
(1) Any sum or sums withheld in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be deemed to be, and shall be, held in trust by the employer for the District of Columbia.
(2) The District of Columbia shall have a lien upon all the property of any employer who fails to withhold or pay over to the Mayor sums required to be withheld under this section. If the employer withholds but fails to pay over the amounts withheld to the Mayor the lien shall accrue on the date the amounts were withheld. If the employer fails to withhold, the lien shall accrue on the date the amounts were required to be withheld. The liens referred to in this paragraph shall constitute a preferred claim, having priority over all other liens or security interests of whatever kind and however created. If property of an employer is seized under distraint provisions, neither the United States Marshal, nor a receiver, assignee or any other officer shall sell the property without first determining from the Mayor the amounts due and payable by said employer, and if there be any amounts due, owing or unpaid, it shall be the duty of such officer to first pay to the Mayor the said amounts out of the proceeds of such sale before making any payment to any judgment creditor or other claimants of whatsoever kind or nature.
(g) Statement to be furnished employee. —
(1)(A) Every person required to deduct and withhold from an employee a tax under this section, or who would have been required to deduct and withhold a tax under this section if the employee had claimed no more than 1 withholding exemption, shall furnish to each such employee in respect to the wages paid by such person to such employee during the calendar year, on or before January 31st of the succeeding year, or, if his employment is terminated before the close of such calendar year, on the day on which the last payment of wages is made, a written statement showing the following:
(i) The name and address of such person;
(ii) The name and address of the employee and his social security account number;
(iii) The total amount of wages as defined in this chapter; and
(iv) The total amount deducted and withheld as tax under this section.
(B) The statement required to be furnished by this subsection in respect of any wages shall be furnished at such other times, shall contain such other information, and shall be in such form, as the Council of the District of Columbia may by regulation prescribe.
(2) The Council of the District of Columbia may promulgate regulations providing for reasonable extensions of time, not in excess of 30 days, to employers required to furnish statements under this subsection.
(h) Liability for tax withheld. — An employer shall be liable for the payment of tax required to be deducted and withheld under this section. Such tax shall be paid to the Mayor and shall not be paid to any other person.
(i) Declaration and payment of estimated tax. —
(1) Every person residing or domiciled in the District at the times prescribed in paragraph (4) of this subsection shall, at these times, make declaration of his or her estimated tax for the taxable year if the person can reasonably be expected to receive gross income not subject to the withholding provisions of this section that will result in a tax liability of more than $100. This requirement shall not apply to any elective officer of the government of the United States, or any employee on the staff of an elected officer in the legislative branch of the government of the United States if the employee is a bona fide resident of the state of residence of the elected officer, or any officer of the executive branch of the government whose appointment to the office held by him or her was by the President of the United States, and subject to confirmation by the Senate of the United States, and whose tenure of office is at the pleasure of the President of the United States, or any Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States unless the officers or Justices are domiciled within the District at any time during the taxable year.
(2) In the declaration required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the individual shall state:
(A) The amount which he estimates as the amount of income tax due under this chapter for the taxable year;
(B) The amount which he estimates as the credit for tax withheld for the taxable year under this chapter;
(C) The excess of the amount estimated under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph over the amount estimated under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, which excess for purposes of this section shall be considered the estimated tax for the taxable year; and
(D) Such other information as may be prescribed in regulations promulgated by the Council of the District of Columbia.
(3) In the case of married individuals (or domestic partner who filed under § 47-1805.01(f)), a single declaration under this section may be made by them jointly, in which case the liability with respect to the estimated tax shall be joint and several. No joint declaration may be made if the married individuals are separated under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance (or domestic partner who filed under § 47-1805.01(f) has terminated the domestic partnership in accordance with § 32-702(d)), or if they have different taxable years. If a joint declaration is made but a joint return is not made for the taxable year, the estimated tax for such year may be treated as the estimated tax of either spouse (or domestic partner who filed under § 47-1805.01(f)), or may be divided between them.
(4) The declaration required under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be filed with the Mayor on or before April 15th of the taxable year, except that if the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection are first met: (A) after April 1st and before June 2nd of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before June 15th of the taxable year; (B) after June 1st and before September 2nd of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before September 15th of the taxable year; or (C) after September 1st of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before January 15th of the succeeding taxable year; provided, that the declaration required to be filed during 1956 may be filed not later than October 15, 1956, if the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection are fulfilled at any time prior to October 1, 1956.
(5) An individual may make amendments of a declaration filed during the taxable year under this subsection, under regulations prescribed by the Council of the District of Columbia.
(6) If on or before January 15th of the succeeding taxable year the taxpayer files a return for the taxable year for which the declaration is required and pays in full the amount computed on the return as payable, then under regulations prescribed by the Council of the District of Columbia:
(A) If the declaration is not required to be filed during the taxable year, but is required to be filed on or before such January 15th, such return shall, for the purposes of this section, be considered as such declaration; and
(B) If the tax shown on the return, reduced by the credits under this chapter, is greater than the estimated tax shown in a declaration previously made or, in the last amendment thereof, such return shall, for the purposes of this section, be considered as the amendment of the declaration permitted by this subsection to be filed on or before such January 15th.
(7) The Council of the District of Columbia may promulgate regulations governing reasonable extensions of time for filing declarations and paying the estimated tax. Except in the case of taxpayers who are abroad, no such extensions shall be for more than 6 months.
(8) If the taxpayer is unable to make his own declaration, the declaration shall be made by a duly authorized agent or by the guardian or other person charged with the care of the person or property of such taxpayer.
(9) The provisions of § 47-1805.04 shall apply to a declaration of estimated tax.
(10) Payment of the estimated tax, or any installment thereof, shall be considered payment on account of the tax for the taxable year.
(j) Liability for 1956 tax. — One-half of the liability for the income tax imposed by this chapter for the calendar year 1956, or the fiscal year of a taxpayer beginning during such calendar year, upon any resident of the District (other than fiduciaries) shall be discharged. The remainder of the total amount of the income tax due as shown on the taxpayer’s return shall be paid to the Collector on the 15th of April, 1957, or if the return be made on the basis of a fiscal year the remainder of the total amount of such tax shall be paid on the 15th day of the 4th month following the close of the fiscal year.
(k) Rate of interest. — Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, interest shall be assessed on deficiencies and late payments of income tax withheld or required to be withheld at source by an employer as provided for in this section at the rate of one and one half percent per month or fraction thereof from the date prescribed for payment of the tax until paid.
(l) Withholding from lottery winnings. —
(1) For the purposes of this subsection, the term:
(A) “Constructive receipt” or “constructively received” means that payments of lottery winnings, although not actually within a taxpayer’s possession, are deemed to be received by the payee and subject to District tax in the taxable year during which the lottery winner is determined by Powerball or other lottery drawing.
(B) “Lottery winnings” means winnings which are subject to withholding as defined in section 3402(q) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, whether as a lump sum or annuitized payment.
(C) “Payment” means the payment of lottery winnings.
(D) “Payor” means a person responsible to make a payment subject to withholding under section 3402(q) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
(2) In making payments, whether actually or constructively received by the payee, of lottery winnings taxable under § 47-1803.02, [§] 47-1807.02, or [§] 47-1808.02, the District of Columbia Lottery and Charitable Games Control Board, or any payor, shall deduct and withhold from such payments an amount equal to the tax on such payments computed at the highest rate of tax under § 47-1806.03, [§] 47-1807.02, or [§] 47-1808.03, as applicable, in accordance with procedures to be established by the Chief Financial Officer.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, the withholding required by this section shall apply to any of the following payments:
(A) A lump sum payment in the year the payment is made; or
(B) A payment of an annuitized amount in the year the payment is made by any payor to a payee.
(4) The withholding required by this subsection shall not apply to a payment to a nonresident, corporation, partnership, or limited liability company if the individual, shareholder, partner, or member of such entities provides the payor with a statement and documentary evidence, subject to review and approval by the Chief Financial Officer, that the income earned is not subject to District tax.
(m)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, if a resident payee receives a payment from a retirement plan or retirement account that is a lump-sum distribution, District income tax shall be withheld on the lump-sum distribution by the payor at the highest District individual income tax rate that is in effect at the time of the distribution.
(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to:
(A) Any portion of a lump-sum payment that was previously subject to tax;
(B) An eligible rollover distribution that is effected as a direct trustee-to-trustee transfer; or
(C) A rollover from an individual retirement account to a traditional or Roth individual retirement account that is effected as a direct trustee-to-trustee transfer.
(3) For the purposes of this subsection, the term:
(A) “Lump-sum distribution” means a payment from a payor to a resident payee of the resident payee’s entire account balance, exclusive of any other tax withholding and any administrative charges and fees.
(B) “Retirement account” or “retirement plan” means:
(i) A qualified employee plan;
(ii) A qualified employee annuity plan;
(iii) A defined contribution plan;
(iv) A defined benefit plan;
(v) A tax-sheltered annuity plan;
(vi) An individual retirement account;
(vii) Any combination of the plans and account listed in sub-subparagraphs (i) through (vi) of this subparagraph; or
(viii) Any similarly situated account or plan as defined by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
(4) This subsection shall apply within 5 days of February 24, 2012.
(n)(1) Beginning for statements due after December 31, 2011, each employer or payor required under this section to withhold income tax for an employee or a person who receives a payment subject to withholding (“payee”) shall prepare a statement for each employee or payee that shows for the previous calendar year any information that the Chief Financial Officer requires by regulation or guidance.
(2)(A) An employer or payor required to submit the statements pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall submit one copy of the statement for each employee or payee to the Chief Financial Officer by January 31 of each year.
(B) Except as provided by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, if the number of statements that an employer or payor is required to submit is 25 or more, the employer or payor shall submit the statements in an electronic format, as prescribed by the Chief Financial Officer.
(C) The Chief Financial Officer may waive the requirement that an employer or payor submit statements in electronic format if the Chief Financial Officer determines that the requirement will result in undue hardship to the employer or payor.